Flour, ingredient of many food products, is a fine powder obtained by grinding grains or other edible plants containing starch.  It is most often produced of wheat, so the word flour with no other indication implies wheat flour. Apart from wheat, it is made from corn, rye, barley and rice. Wheat flour is one of the most important types of food in the European and American culture, and an essential ingredient in most breads and pastas. Wheat flour contains a protein called gluten, which gives elastic structure to the dough. This enables bubbles ‘ containment, which gives airy and soft final product, suitable for bread, cakes etc.


Cereals are annual plants, member of the grass family (Gramineae), whose fruits grain (corn) can be used for human and animal consumption, and  also as raw materials in the food industry. Primarily, when it comes to systematics and distribution of grains, we have : wheat (Tricium), rye (Secale ), barley (Horedum), rice (Oriya), oats (Avena) and corn (Zea mays). In addition, we can also include millet (Panicum), sorghum (sorghum), buckwheat, and a hybrid of wheat and rye called triticale.


Soybean (lat. Glycine max) is a legume plant with a high nutritional value. There are many varieties, which differentiate in shape, color, taste and chemical properties of the grain. It contains high fat percentage – 19.9%, carbohydrates – 30.2%, protein – 36,5%, and vitamins of groups A and B. In the food industry, it can be used in various forms such as soy milk, cheese better known as tofu, flour, oil, sauce, briquettes etc.


Starch is a polysaccharide that is widespread as a reserve food in plants. It is a fine white or cream-colored (rarely yellow or red) powder composed of fine grains. In cold water, alcohol and ether, starch is insoluble, while as in hot water it gives a dense colloidal solution (starch paste), which when cooled, gives a special mass.