Cement (crushed stone) is a hydraulic binder, finely ground inorganic material, which mixed with water gives cementitious binder which by hydration process cures, and after that stays steady volume, under the water too.  As an integral part in the production of concrete, cement is one of the most important construction materials, because it ensures the stability of future construction objects.


Lime is building-binding material. It is used for:

  • In construction industry (production of building mortars for building and plastering)
  • In chemical industry
  • In road construction (soil stabilization)
  • For sanation of ecological incidents (for purification and neutralization of wastewaters, and water softening)
  • In food and textile industry
  • In agriculture
  • As coating (it has to be melted in water and made in slurry).


Coal is fuel sediment. It is usually composed of the remains, from the decay of plants, and it originated from peatland in distant past. The process of carbonization is completed by gradually increasing the relative content of carbon (C), while simultaneously reducing the relative content of oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2). Series of successive conversions happen: herbal rests and tree – peatland– lignite – brown coal – coal. Coal is a conventional, nonrenewable energy resource.